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新SAT寫作分析子項分的得分解析
2018-12-21 17:37 | 編輯:在線考試 外語培訓中心  來自:未知 
導讀:SAT寫作從傳統議論文(Argumentative Essay)轉變為分析性文章(Analytical Essay)后,作文部分對考生的核心要求發生了巨大的變化。
盡管大部分同學可以借鑒在初中至高中階段的語文考試中"閱讀賞析"的部分知識和技巧,但考慮到新SAT寫作的答題方式為一篇完整的作文而非簡答題或選擇題,學生在對應兩者的做題思路上有著根本的不同:語文的閱讀賞析中,考生只需根據設定好的題目和相應區間做出回答;但在新SAT寫作中,問卷中"請寫一篇作者是如何說服讀者其主要觀點的文章" 這種籠統而單一的要求不僅沒有明確的答題方式,也沒有清楚的答題范圍。這種"自問自答"的出題形式是北美文學課程中常用的考場方式,雖然賦予了學生極大的作答自由,但是也對學生對于文學作品的分析任務(Analytical Task)的理解提出較高的要求。
 
分析任務(Analytical Task)為何?
 
分析任務就是要求學生針對其選擇的文章中某一段落或細節進行修辭和含義等方面的分析,進而說明作者是如何在這一段落或細節中論證其主論點或分論點的。雖然各種文學分析考試的主要要求十分相似,但是每個考試的得分細則仍稍有不同。標準化的新SAT寫作考試對于其分析任務得分也有著明確地規定。以下是新SAT官方指南中所給出的寫作分析子項分的部分評分標準:
 
Analysis 4 (3):
The response offers an insightful (effective) analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated (N/A) understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered (competent) evaluation of the author's use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements.
SAT官方提出的要求是學生要對源文進行分析并展示出對于分析任務的理解,同時也要給出對于作者所使用的各種文學特點的解析。看似簡單的要求要完全做到實際上相當不易。
4分與3分的主要區別在哪?
評分標準本身已是言簡意賅,而中對于4分與3分的區別則更顯模棱兩可,僅把 insightful 和 thorough 這兩個抽象形容詞替換成為了 effective 和 competent 并去掉了 sophisticated。被改掉的三個單詞雖然意義不一,但是都反映了一個核心要求:4分的分析任務必須反映出文章的縱深。也就是說,學生在分析一個段落或細節的時候不能只局限在單一的區間內分析其字面含義,更要從全文的角度考察這個的段落或細節的綜合意義。雖然4分和3分的區別絕不僅于此,但是很多時候兩者的的差異體現了段落內和段落間分析的差異。
分析任務的實際反映
抽象的評分標準需要在實際的文字中反映出來。這里我們借用官方指南中前總統 Jimmy Carter 的 Foreword to Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Seasons of Life and Land, A Photographic Journey 來進一步展示分析任務的優劣。文章細節如下:

Thesis: The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge should not be developed for industry.
Location: The 2nd of 9 paragraphs
Detail: More than a decade ago, [my wife] Rosalynn and I had the fortunate opportunity to camp and hike in these regions of the Arctic Refuge. During bright July days, we walked along ancient caribou trails and studied the brilliant mosaic of wildflowers, mosses, and lichens that hugged the tundra. There was a timeless quality about this great land. As the never-setting sun circled above the horizon, we watched muskox, those shaggy survivors of the Ice Age, lumber along braided rivers that meander toward the Beaufort Sea.
片段中可進行分析的文學特點包括:Anecdote,Personification,Descriptive Language。其中,Personification 是我們重點分析的文學特點,故在分析中我們需要使用到其分析功能句式:The author ascribes/attributes (human traits, emotions, behaviors …) to (an object or an animal)。
 
1st Attempt:
The author uses his personal anecdote to start his argument. Specifically, he personifies the "brilliant mosaic" when describing what he saw. By using the word "hugged," the author attributes/ascribes a human behavior to the arctic plants, therefore demonstrating the beauty of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Reading: 2~3 (Partial ~ Proficient) + Analysis: 2 (Partial)
該文段以較短的篇幅帶出了源文的關鍵詞,并寫出了功能句式,但是卻缺乏實際內容,讓讀者一頭霧水。無論對 personal anecdote,brilliant mosaic,還是 human behavior,作者都點到輒止,缺乏進一步的說明和解析。同時,文段對于原文邏輯的分析過簡:hug → arctic beauty,忽略了其中的變化過程。無論從這些關鍵詞的語意還是文學特點本身上都無法給出 competent evaluation,更不要說 effective analysis 了。綜合文段的閱讀和分析任務情況,文段只能夠獲得 Partial 的評價。

2nd Attempt:
The author recounts his arctic journey with his wife more than a decade ago to start his argument. In descriptive visual language, the author presents the audience with an authentic picture of the Arctic Refuge, with personification deliberately employed to appeal to audience's senses. By depicting the "brilliant mosaic of wildflowers, mosses, and lichens that hugged the tundra," the author attributes/ascribes a human behavior to the arctic plants, ones that covered the tundra so well that it almost feels like that they were holding the tundra. Through the presentation of what he witnessed during his arctic trip, the author is therefore able to not only display the beauty of the National Wildlife Refuge, but also convince the audience of its importance to the environment.
Reading: 3~4 (Proficient ~ Advanced) + Analysis: 3 (Proficient)
該文段的篇幅較上一文段有明顯增長,且增長的主要部位就是上一文段所缺少的對于 personal anecdote,brilliant mosaic,和 human behavior 的具體說明和解釋。同時,本文段還比較豐富地還原了源文的邏輯:hug → cover → arctic beauty → environmental importance,不僅能夠體現作者所寫事物的特點和所使用文學特點的修辭意義,還能夠很好地展示作者的寫作目的。綜合來說,competent evaluation 和 effective analysis 能讓文段獲得 Proficient 的評價。
 
3rd Attempt:
As the onset of his argument, the author provides specific details from his arctic journey with his wife more than a decade ago to allow the audience to envisage the Arctic Refuge. Through an environmental delineation "the brilliant mosaic of wildflowers, mosses, and lichens that hugged the tundra," the author attributes/ascribes a human behavior to the arctic plants that shrouded the arctic ground, revealing the abundance of the arctic vegetation. In doing so, the author not only displays the natural beauty of the National Wildlife Refuge, but also convinces the audience of its ecological value. In addition, by ensuring the audience the ecological value at the early stage of the passage, the author foreshadows the imminent danger from industrial development threatening the arctic refuge, encouraging the audience to raise immediate concern about the Arctic Refuge.
Reading: 4 (Advanced) + Analysis: 4 (Advanced)
該文段的篇幅與上一文段相當,說明段落長度并非決定閱讀或分析任務好壞的主要因素。文段中對于 personal anecdote,brilliant mosaic,和 human behavior 的說明和解釋大致與上一文段相同,而不同的地方主要集中在本文段后部,在解釋和分析文本內容本身的基礎上,還增加了文本對讀者的效果和影響。另外,本文段進一步完善了源文的邏輯:hug → shroud → abundance → arctic beauty → ecological value → imminent danger,在很好地解釋了作者是如何在本段中寫出 Arctic Refuge 的生態意義的同時,還解釋了本細節放置于全文第二段所起的結構性意義,即預示后文所寫的環境問題。而這種縱觀全文的解釋,也就是段間聯系的解析,能讓本文段獲得 Advanced 的評價。

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